Does screen time affect a toddler’s language and speech development?
Photo by Igor Starkov on Unsplash
It’s natural to wonder how screen time affects your little ones — especially regarding important milestones like language and speech development. In today’s technology-driven world, toddlers are often exposed to various screens, including TVs, smartphones, tablets, and computers.
As children are introduced to technology at an increasingly young age, parents must be aware of its potential effects on their development. Getting caught up with the latest research can help you make informed decisions about their screen time.
The stages of language development in toddlers
Development is a crucial aspect of a child’s growth and involves several stages that evolve as they mature. It’s important to recognize that each child’s language development may vary. However, there are some general milestones to consider:
- First words (12-18 months): Around their first birthday, toddlers typically start to utter their first words. These initial words often include simple, familiar terms such as “mama” or “dada.”
- Two-word phrases (18-24 months): As toddlers progress, they begin combining words to form simple terms like “more milk” or “daddy home.” This stage demonstrates an understanding of basic grammar and syntax rules.
- Complex sentences (2-3 years): By age 3, most children can form more complex sentences and carry on simple conversations. Their vocabulary expands rapidly, and they start to grasp more advanced language rules.
It’s worth noting that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently updated its language development guidelines. Previously, the milestone was for children to speak 50 words by age 2 in at least 50% of cases. However, due to the impact of isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic on communication development, the CDC changed this guideline to 50 words spoken by 30 months in at least 75% of kids.
These new guidelines reflect the challenges faced by children born during the pandemic and highlight the importance of understanding and supporting language development in the context of evolving societal circumstances.
Factors affecting language development
Various factors can contribute to language development in toddlers, and understanding them can help parents support their child’s growth effectively. Some key elements include the following:
- Genetics: A child’s genetic makeup plays a large role in language development. Certain inherited traits, such as a predisposition to language or speech disorders, can affect progress in this area.
- Social interaction: Frequent and meaningful social interactions are essential for a child’s language development. Conversations with parents and peers expose toddlers to new words and phrases, allowing them to practice and refine their speaking skills.
- Exposure to language: A language-rich environment is essential for a child’s development. Reading books, singing songs, and engaging in storytelling and imaginative play expand a child’s vocabulary and foster their understanding of sentence structures.
- Quality of language input: The language quality input a child receives is also vital in their development. Clear, accurate, and varied exposure enables children to learn new words and understand different contexts more effectively.
- Hearing ability: Hearing is essential for language development, as it allows children to process and mimic the sounds they hear. Undiagnosed issues can lead to delayed language acquisition and communication difficulties.
- Cognitive development: A child’s overall cognitive development influences their ability to understand and use language effectively. Problem-solving, memory, and attention skills are all critical components of language development.
- Socioeconomic factors: Socioeconomic background may also impact the resources and opportunities available for language exposure and enrichment.
The findings on screen time and language development
Numerous studies have explored the relationship between screen time and language development in toddlers. These findings highlight positive and negative effects — emphasizing the importance of carefully considering the quality and quantity of screen time to support a child’s language and speech growth.
Positive effects of screen time
Screen time can positively affect language development for toddlers when used appropriately. In fact, research has shown that screen time may increase language and vocabulary skills in children at 2 ½ years of age. That’s because educational programs and apps enable toddlers to learn new words, phrases, and concepts engagingly.
High-quality content that promotes interaction, such as asking questions or encouraging toddlers to repeat words, can enhance learning and retention. Additionally, exposure to diverse accents, dialects, or languages through media can broaden a child’s linguistic understanding and promote bilingualism.
Negative effects of screen time
Despite potential benefits, excessive or inappropriate screen time can negatively affect toddlers’ language development. A recent study by the JAMA Network has shown that 2-year-olds have lower communication skills when they spend more than an hour of screen time each day.
These findings could be because younger children have reduced social interaction during screen time. Face-to-face communication is crucial for language learning, and excessive screen time can lead to passive learning — impacting language development.
Overstimulation that excessive screen time causes can also affect a child’s focus. This can make it more challenging for them to concentrate and acquire new language skills. However, balancing screen time and other developmental activities is key to mitigating these negative effects.
In fact, the same study by the JAMA Network found that 18% of those adverse effects are alleviated when 2-year-olds play more frequently outdoors.
Recommendations for balancing screen time and language development
Consider the following recommendations to balance screen time and language development:
- Follow the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines on screen time, which suggest limiting screens for children under 18 months to educational programs and limiting screen time to one hour per day for children 2-5.
- Choose age-appropriate and educational content that promotes language learning and encourages interaction.
- Engage with your child during screen time, asking questions or discussing the content to promote active learning.
- Prioritize face-to-face communication and play, incorporating activities like reading, singing, and storytelling to foster language development.
- Establish screen-free zones and routines, such as mealtimes and bedtime, to encourage healthy habits and allow for meaningful social interactions.
Navigating screen time and language development in toddlers
Screen time can either negatively or positively impact a toddler’s language and speech development. However, it all depends on content, duration, and context. That’s why keeping a balance is important for maintaining healthy language development.
Remember that every child’s journey is unique. Following expert guidelines is crucial, so continue researching and assessing your toddler’s habits to ensure they thrive in an increasingly digital world.